Art and Iconography

1.Characteristics of the Veronica

  1. Characteristics of the Veronica deduced from texts and copies (serenity, suffering, visible teeth, transparent veil, crown of thorns, green crown, triple veil)
  2. The development of these characteristics from 1204-1400
  3. Where did these characteristics come from? From texts to images, or images to texts?
  4. The Veronica and the history of textiles
  5. Vera icona et presentia realis; the Veronica and the Host
  6. The specificity of copies of the Veronica linked to their paths of diffusion (through the spreading of the order of Santo Spirito in Sassia, pilgrimages, the Franciscans)
  7. Veronica and new artistic media (woodcut, oil, engraving, etching)
  8. Studies of the first copies of the Veronica (e.g. in Matthew Paris, James le Palmer, etc.)

2. Differences and similarities between the images of Christ not made by human hands

This is perhaps the most well investigated area so far, but it remains fertile ground for a better understanding of the development of characteristics of the Veronica in iconographic terms, but also the geographical spread of its fame across Europe. Firstly, the birth and the evolution of the iconography of the Veronica, with particular reference to the unity and difference between the iconography of the Veronica and of the Holy Face. Relations between the liturgy, Mystery plays and the depiction of the Veronica merit attention. Another theme is the geographic spread of the Veronica linked to private ostensions and the Holy Years. The ambiguity of this iconography (the transfigured or suffering face) needs to be understood also in the identification of the Holy Face with the Feast of the Transfiguration in north-eastern Europe, for example, particularly in Poland, and the iconography of the Passion. Lastly, it would be interesting to study the fabrication and spread of devotional objects linked to the Veronica, conserved in museums and churches all around Europe.